The Healthier Workforce Center of the Midwest proudly presents Workplace Matters, a mini podcast series focusing on healthy work design. Here, we’ll tackle a broad range of cost-effective approaches to impact the well-being of today’s workforce.


Mental Health During Covid-19

This episode of Workplace Matters looks at what employers can do to better their employee’s mental health amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Stress has always been present in the workplace, but for many this time is especially stressful. How can employers ease that stress for their employees? We talked with Dr. Saba Ali, Professor of Counseling Psychology in the College of Education at the University of Iowa about what employers can do.

Host: Michael Guhin

Guest: Dr. Saba Ali

Mental Health During Covid-19

Michael: You're listening to workplace matters. Mental health and the workplace has previously been an important issue for employers to focus on. But now during COVID-19, employee mental health is becoming more important than ever. We talked with Dr. Saba Ali, professor of counseling psychology in the College of Education at the University of Iowa, about what employers should know about their employees’ mental health right now and what can be done to help improve it.

Michael: Each workplace is different and carries its own set of stress factors. Factors which may become more prevalent during COVID, along with a new set of challenges, especially for essential workers and small businesses.

Dr. Ali: A Small business needs to make money, to have business, to make sure that their branding is out there just in normal times. But obviously with COVID-19, they can't do the usual kinds of activities or services that they usually provide, and that's a huge financial stress. It's a huge stress on small businesses. It's a huge stress on workers worried about paychecks, worried about how they're going to feed their families, worried about if they can get back to business and when they can get back to business. Certainly, that's a huge part of stress right now. I think that most Americans are living under. Most people in the world right now are living under, but it's exacerbated for anybody who owns a small business right now, that's in the service industry.

Michael: Employers must be more vigilant than ever for the signs and symptoms of stress so that if an employee is feeling overly stressed, they can get help as soon as they need to. So what are the signs and symptoms? What should employers look for?

Dr. Ali: We can look at some of the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and see some of the stressors. You know, increased irritability, increased worry, loss of appetite, an inability to concentrate on tasks. Those are usually really good signs that somebody is experiencing stress. Sometimes, you know, people are more verbal, you know, different people, different personality. Some people express their frustration and their stress more openly. Others, you would have to look for some of these signs. I think one of the biggest signs of stress right now would be at really a decreased ability to concentrate and heightened levels of sort of physiological arousal. So, you know, feeling jittery, feeling nervous. Those kinds of things that you might be able to actually see in a person rather than maybe hear it. And again, some people are much more verbal about their feelings of stress or the feelings of fear and others.

Michael: Each workplace should have an individualized approach for their specific employees. But are there best practices that can be applied to all businesses? Dr. Lee identified three practices which can be implemented into workplaces to alleviate stress.

Dr. Ali: It really depends on what type of workplace you're in right now. I mean, obviously, some people are much more frontline than others in this whole pandemic. But I would say that there's three things across the board that I would really encourage supervisors to think about with their employees. The first one would be to the extent that you can decrease mental load or cognitive load in your employees, it would be a really helpful thing. So thinking about it from the perspective of trying to help workers do the tasks that are essential right now versus trying to, you know, increase productivity or think about how how people need to get things done is really by reducing the load and letting people concentrate on the tasks that are most important, really, really will help people in the workplace to kind of focus their energies and decrease stress of thinking about a lot of different things at the same time. So that would be, I think, the number one thing. I think one of the other things is information is really helpful for workers in this time. So I think transparency, but balancing that with hopefulness.

Dr. Ali: So transparency about what's going on, maybe financially for a company or what's going on in terms of for health care workers, what's going on with the protective gear that they need. Being transparent about that, but also being hopeful that things can get better, that they will get better. But being practical about that information, not lying to people. Being very careful about how you give people the information, but also making sure that you're transparent and let people know what really is going on. I think the third thing is this thinking about if you've ever heard of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, it's like a pyramid.

Michael: Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a psychological theory which proposes that in order for people to be motivated and healthy, they need to have five intrinsic human needs satisfied physiological needs, safety, love or belonging, esteem, and finally self-actualization.

Dr. Ali: So I think right now what we need to do is concentrate on that bottom of the pyramid, make sure people's physiological needs are met, make sure they have food, shelter, those kinds of things. You also want to create a sense of belonging or a sense of collectivism around this whole pandemic and how we're dealing with it. When people feel those kinds of two things, they feel safer if their needs are met at the very basic level. They just tend to feel safer. And that reduces some of the stress. And stress really interferes with concentration, if you can help people deal with that kind of stress and anxiety that they're experiencing, then you can't get them to maybe concentrate and focus a little bit more on the job at hand and again, depending on what kind of work you're doing. If you're an essential worker right now, you need all the energy you can to do the job. So if you can help people concentrate a little bit better by helping them get mental health resources that they need, then, people are safer in general because the people who are doing the essential work right now are more focused on their job and not worrying about everything else. So I think mental health has to be a priority to help people to reduce stress so that we're all just safer.

Michael: Moving forward, keeping the mental health home employees in mind during the COVID-19 pandemic should be a priority to maintain productivity and to continue to have our essential workers healthy. And this doesn't need to be a fight that employers need to go through alone.

Dr. Ali: They're doing telehealth right now or tele therapy, which I think is really helpful. So certainly mental health agencies, but they're also things like apps that do calming breathing techniques, relaxation techniques that I think can be really helpful. There's a lot of information online right now through the American Psychological Association, through the American Counseling Association that can help with really sort of basic information about what employers can do for their employees at this time and ways that they can introduce stress reduction in the workplace. But I do recommend sort of being the idea of apps or anything that sort of helps to focus people on what they need. I think also mental health breaks during the day are really important, like letting people have that time, you know, 10 minutes to just walk around outside or whatever it is that they need to do to just again reduce that anxiety and stress so they can come back in and concentrate on what they need to do.

Michael: Workplace Matters is supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Visit Healthier Workforce Center .org to listen to more podcasts and view our ongoing video series. And from all of us at the Healthier Workforce Center, stay safe and healthy.


Marijuana and the Workplace: Introduction

Description: This episode of Workplace Matters is the first of two about marijuana in the workplace. With more states choosing to alter marijuana laws and regulations despite federal laws, the discussion surrounding marijuana and the workplace is changing. How should businesses respond or not respond to these changes? This first episode focuses on educating employers about marijuana’s attributes, the litigation surrounding it, and how both of those relate to the health and safety of the workplace.

Host: Michael Guhin

Guests: Dr. Brian Kaskie, Jeffery Meyers, Allison Wright, and Matthew Pappas

Note: These interviews were recorded before December 4th, 2019 when the Illinois Recreational Marijuana Law was amended clarifying that employers may conduct pre-employment tests for marijuana use and may impose disciplinary action against employees for failing.

Marijuana and the Workplace: Introduction

Michael: You're listening to workplace matters. Today's episode will focused on educating employers on what they should know about marijuana, the first in a two part series. It's a topic that is constantly changing within legislation and with the drug itself. What do employers need to know about marijuana?

Michael: Before discussing marijuana tolerance or intolerance, it's important to be aware of how marijuana actually affects the body outside of the simplified label of being high. What are it’s health and safety effects? We talked with Matthew Poppies and Alison Wright of the Poppies O'Connor law firm in Rock Island Illinois and Jeffrey Meyers of the area substance abuse counsel in Cedar Rapids about marijuana's effects on the body.

Allison: Marijuana is considered a central nervous system depressant, and there are significant studies that prove different things that it can impact other way from memory to actual motor function use. There's also a lot of studies that support cognitive impairment when you're on the job, being able to remember things or be able to apply some sort of a thought process.

Jeffery: If someone uses that sort of work, that doesn't mean that they're not psychoactive, that doesn't mean they're not impaired. Marijuana stays in the system for a long time. It depends on the person's body weight, their genetics and how much they've had. But they could very well have used the night before, the early morning before, and they could still have some impairment effects into the following day similar to alcohol.

Michael: The main active ingredient in marijuana is THC, and oil secreted by the cannabis plant. When absorbed within the blood stream, THC reacts with receptors in the brain to cause sedation and mild euphoria in low doses, or in high doses hallucinogenic effects and euphoria. And motor impairment has been noted up to 24 hours after use in some cases. Over time, marijuana has changed quite a bit. Marijuana is no longer only smoked. There are new forms of ingestion like e-cigarettes or vaping devices that contain THC, edible forms of THC that can even be in things like tea and also much more concentrated forms of pure THC that can be smoked. Marijuana has evolved and it is still changing.

Jeffery: Marijuana is a very complicated topic because you have a lot of products on the market that are marijuana or marijuana derivative. So it's a much more potent drug than used to be. About 52 percent of Americans have at least tried marijuana. And because of that, we tend to base our experiences off of what we tried. So we tried it in the 60s, 70s, 80s, 90s, even early 2000s. We're not trying what's out there now. The potency, to give an example in the 60s, you'd be lucky to get 1 to 3 percent. What we've seen is really this exponential rise in the level. Could be 42 percent THC. States like Iowa that it's illegal, we're finding 15 to 20 percent. Though I will say now that we're bordering some legal states. I wouldn't be surprised if that bumps up. There are strains out there that act very much like a stimulant. And you could have someone that displays a sort of this manic energy and symptoms that wouldn't be too dissimilar to someone on, say, methamphetamine in some cases. And then you have other strains that are meant as more of depressants or as they would call a downer.

Michael: CBD is a marijuana bi-product and is the second most prevalent active ingredient in marijuana next to THC. Unlike THC, there is no “high” associated with it and the chemical shows no signs of abuse of dependence potential. It is used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain in some cases, with side effects or nausea, fatigue, and irritability. The rapid growth of CBD has also created inconsistency with its regulation meaning that the levels of CBD many not be consistent between providers with even THC being present in some cases. This should decrease as government regulation expands, but it’s important to be aware of. CBD’s status as a marijuana bi-product has also created a discrepancy between states on its legal status.

Jeffery: States like Iowa and many, many other states have legal CBD programs where if you go to a physician and they certify that you have a certain condition, then you are allowed to obtain CBD, which has pretty low levels of THC. So, for instance, here it's tapped at a capped at 3 percent. If you have post-accident and someone test positive for marijuana and you do like a urine analysis, new hair sample, that doesn't necessarily mean much because that could have been in their system for 30 days, even in the case of a hair sample, quite a bit past that. So you're gonna want to look at other alternative methods of testing saliva as a possibility. Blood's a possibility, but really the technology isn't where it's at with alcohol, where you could say, yes, not only is in their system, but it's in their system to an extent that we would expect it to cause impairment. And that's going to be the real tricky component

Michael: It’s important to note that it is possible, but unlikely for someone in the CBD program to fail a urinary test. The most reliable test to try and avoid this is a blood test, this may however be cost prohibitive. Under U.S. federal law, Marijuana is illegal and there are many states where it is still fully illegal, but some states have chosen to change that distinction. States like Iowa have CBD programs. Many states have medical cannabis programs. And at the time of recording this, there are 11 states where it is fully legal. Medical marijuana implements cannabis as a form of counteracting things like anxiety, inflammation, nausea and generally helping to relax. Dr Brian Kaskie from University of Iowa is professor of Health management and policy. We asked him about the experiences he had seen involving marijuana.

Kaskie: Probably the most revealing interview I had was with an older adult who identified himself as a Marine veteran. He was a sergeant in Vietnam, used to bust people for using drugs all the time. He had a very negative attitude towards it. But as the tremors associated with MS most persisted, he couldn't hold a cup of coffee anymore. And this was becoming not only a quality of life issue, but a functional issue. And he was down to his last straw and somebody said, well, wanted to try cannabis. And as he's telling me this in his interview, he's all in a cup of coffee. And I just said “What's that about?” And he goes “That's the cannabis”. And so you see something like that and then you start to think a little. Yeah. Again, if we're scientists, if we're truly here to advance knowledge, you have to remain open.

Michael: Medical marijuana does not have a scientific consensus. However, it is becoming more relevant medically, culturally, and legally. But there are questions that are yet to be answered, questions like, is my insurance provider allowed to increase my rates if I allow my employees to legally use marijuana? Does medical marijuana make someone an A.D.A. protected class? Illinois is legal now, but how should that affect my workplace policy?

Allison: It can impact insurance and a lot of different ways.

Michael: When speaking about employers.

Allison: It could increase their rates. They could be denied coverage altogether. We don't yet know what the fallout is going to be for that, but they have a lot more rights and limitations to limit what is provided because the statutes that would otherwise govern those types of relationships don't exist yet.

Jeffery: So many states have medical marijuana programs, and it really varies on the state on whether or not that's going to make them sort of a protected class, if you will. Because it's still federally illegal, there have been some court cases that have said, yes, if you outright prohibit marijuana and someone has a medical marijuana card for our state program, that's going to be discriminatory. The employer has to look at, are they in a safety sensitive position. The other caveat, is if you’re an employers who does business with the federal government and has contracts with the federal government it’s still federally illegal so generally speaking you’d be well within your rights to test for that.

Kaskie: Most lawyers not only advise their clients in this matter to be risk averse, most companies and lawyers will be risk intolerant which means they'll say things. Well, you don't want to be the first company to get in a case over this. So they default to a more conservative position and they'll say we're just not going to let people with cannabis program participation qualification work for us because the workplace drug policy comes first. They see that as subordinated because it's federal.

Matthew: There's a rush to get the law passed. This has not been vetted. And that's one of the problems with the way this is come. You know, all of a sudden, you, Illinois, it's legal, OK? There's a lot of other things that this affects. And we're going to find that out because they haven't done the homework. The legislature has not done the homework to basically address those issues.

Michael: When beginning to think about a new workplace drug policy, every company should be contacting their lawyers and asking questions about what their new policy should be. Know state laws by either asking lawyers about them or searching your state legislature’s database online. Other sites like the NSC.org are helpful to research more about marijuana's effects. The more time put into research about the law or the drug, the higher quality of policy. A topic covered in our next episode of Workplace Matters. On marijuana policy.

Michael: Workplace Matters is supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. To listen to more podcasts for your ongoing video series. Or for more information about us, visit Healthier Workforce Center dot org. Thank you.


Visible Felt Leadership

Description: This episode of Workplace Matters focuses on the vital role of leadership in the workplace. We talked with Chris Overman from Nebraska Public Power District about how they have incorporated Safety and Health into the foundation of their business through visible felt leadership. Chris and Nebraska Public Power District leadership have created an environment where worker well-being thrives.

Host: Michael Guhin

Guests: Chris Overman

Visible Felt Leadership

Michael: You’re listening to Workplace matters. Today's episode will be looking at leadership. Strong leadership is where health and safety begins and where it becomes a priority in a workplace. We talked with Chris Overman about what his company has done to create visible felt leadership within their organization.

Michael: Chris Overman is the director of safety and human performance for Nebraska Public Power, a statewide power company with 1800 employees.

Chris: We’re in 93 of 95 counties and we’re a transmission, distribution, and retail provider of electricity. We’re the state's largest power provider.

Michael: Despite the size and hazards associated with wind, coal, and nuclear energies, the company has won numerous awards for outstanding safety initiatives and performance. Chris and the leaders at Nebraska Public Power have developed a culture focused on improving the health and safety of their employees. Even bringing in experts to educate them on new concepts in leadership, including a group that spoke about visible felt leadership. This is a concept that can be attributed to the DuPont Company. It's about leading employees of all levels to understand and feel their leaders high standards and accept their genuine commitment to safety.

Chris: They illustrated it to us in a jigsaw puzzle. At the center was this thing called visible felt leadership about Caring for people and having people internalize that and then around the edges were all the programmatic elements of the safety programs. It really gets down to showing you care. That's what holds it all together.

You can’t force people to be committed. You can force compliance when you're there, but you're not going to get the results you want through any kind of strictly compliance-based anything. You have to know your people. You have to know what's going on in the field and you have to get out there and you have to build trust and relationships and use that influence to move, move the needle. You can’t just see this, think you know what it is, and apply a fix and expect that to get you great results in the long-term.

Michael: Knowing that forcing compliance isn’t the way to lead, Chris and the others instead began to look at leadership from a much more hands-on perspective.

Chris: You gotta listen and you gotta go look at what's causing the problems, you gotta go look at what's working and then you gotta make it as important as the budget, and the customer meetings, and the industry benchmarking. And being out with your people seeing what's going on is, is every bit as important as all that safety, wellness, and those types of things are key to the operation of the organization. I have some of these executives say to me, “You know, Chris, how do we do that?” I say, “One conversation at a time.” It’s not some drive-by thing that you can go do today, and quit doing tomorrow. You gotta internalize it. We’ve got great support from our senior leaders and not only in word but in deed, they're out in the field, observing, asking questions, providing support, showing they care, raising standards, challenging folks in a good way.

Michael: Listening to employees, getting employee feedback, and being out in the field are all very important for leadership within a company. But bad habits can form in any workplace, and it can be easy to blame the employee. The team at Nebraska Public Power took a different viewpoint.

Chris: Everything that you do has to do with your systems and your culture of  leadership. Right? What are you willing to tolerate? How do you reinforce the things you want? And how do you not reinforce the things you don't want? So if you see people doing things that you don't want them to do, you have to take a look at how is that being reinforced? Cuz if it wasn't, they wouldn't be doing it. Look at your systems; look upstream from the person.”

Michael: One example of a positive behavior that was reinforced was with lifting appropriate amounts of weight. Employees were lifting too much weight for them to handle , and because this habit was not stopped by management it became reinforced within the culture. Once management realized the negative behavior they could begin to change the culture

Chris: We like to tell folks just because you can do that doesn’t mean you should and this isn't a weightlifting competition. So it will no longer be a badge of honor to leave all broken up and limping away, which I think it used to be.

Michael: At their current level, Nebraska Public Power has more inter-connectivity between safety, health, and wellness than ever, but as we’ve said before, employee wellness has no endpoint. It is about constant improvement.

Chris: We’re getting some feedback that, maybe, we’re as managers and leaders quick to judge or quick to discount something, so what we're really focusing on to try to get to that level of interdependency where the best teams are (any kind of team) when you get the team on the same page… they talk about it in sports about get the locker room and get the leaders, the strong leadership on the team where the coaches just have to kind of adjust a little bit but the team kind of just self-monitors. When you get that, you get a great power.

Michael: Good leadership is in multiple layers throughout the company, involves leaders being on the ground with employees, and reinforcing positive behaviors. Obviously, there's more than that, but these major takeaways have helped to create very strong leaders for a company that powers almost all of Nebraska. Employee wellness is just as important as any other major item on the agenda.

Chris: It’s all about the people, if people take care of the people and a lot of that other stuff will take care of itself.

Michael: Workplace matters is supported by the National Institute for occupational safety and health. To listen to more podcasts, view our ongoing video series, or for more information about us, visit Healthier Workforce Center. Org. Thank you.


The Participatory Approach

Description: This episode of Workplace Matters focuses on a project improving correctional officers’ health through a Participatory Approach. This is about involving employees in the creation of changes to the workplace. We’ll take a look at a St. Louis project on rural and urban jails, and how their participatory approach had long lasting positive effects on a stressful workplace.

Host: Michael Guhin

Guests: Dr. Lisa Jaegers, Superintendent Jeffery Carson, Correctional Officer Patryce Jackson, and Correctional Officer Ian Spooner

The Participatory Approach

Michael: You're listening to workplace matters presented by the Healthier Workforce Center of the Midwest. Today's episode will look at the participatory approach a method of involving employee all levels to change the workplace. We'll look at how this method was used at a jail an institution designed to keep people safe that wanted to do the same for its employees.

Jeagers: Yeah so a participatory needs assessment is a really foundational piece of total worker health that I think is so important.

Michael: Dr. Lisa Jeagers is an assistant professor in the occupational science in therapy department at St. Louis University.

Jeagers: Many individuals representing different facets of the organization are coming together and working together towards identifying an issue and then talking about solutions related to those issues.

Michael: That is at the core of the participatory approach. Many different workers coming together to find solutions. The idea being that workers are the experts on their environment and its problems. They can delineate Solutions better than anyone else this helps to ensure that solutions are both accepted by the workers and come closer to suiting their needs. Dr. Yeager's and other researchers implemented this process at 2 rural and 2 Urban jails in and around St. Louis. The process began with confidential surveys.

Jeagers: So, we started with surveys with the officers and those surveys informed focus groups. And from those focus groups, we gathered more ideas and themes of what the next step should be. Those next steps turned out to be some simple intervention Simple Solutions that could easily be rolled out in the workplace and some long-term goals.

Michael: The aggregate data was collected by Dr. Jeagers and reported back to the jail.

Jeagers: We found that over 31% of officers showed signs of depression which is far higher than the general population. We found that they have high rates of PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder, extremely high rates of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and so on so the list of physical health and mental health conditions are really, you know, the list is very long.

Michael: Once the results were reported teams comprised of officers from multiple positions and ranks were created to develop interventions. Superintendent. Jeffrey. Carson is a ranking officer at one of the jails involved with the study.

Carson: You know my first task was I wanted to know how to protect staff. How to make them feel safe. How do you equip them with skills that they will be able to oversee offenders and watch out for each other. Be a intermediary between the community and facility.

Michael: Correction officer Ian Spooner was part of the team developing interventions.

Spooner: A lot of it seemed to revolve around being healthy. All the things that go into that. Being active, eating the correct foods and stuff like that. And so we looked into how we could promote a better culture of staying healthy.

Carson: Some of the issues are eating and breaks. So when you have 30 minutes to take a break. You’re rushing outside, you got cigarette in your mouth and try to light it and eat a little Debbie at the same time. That's not healthy.

Spooner: There was definitely a deficit in the officers Health mentally and physically often. Yeah, we had a high number of people say that they experienced some sort of depression, high blood pressure is one of those, hypertension feeling depressed. So and like a supposed traumatic stress.

Michael: For each problem solution is created by a group of employees. That solution is implemented and revised continuously to create the best possible work environment for the employee.

Carson: We had to look at eating and what we provided on the job versus the vending machine and then we restrict what you can bring in a jail, you know, these are the items you can bring, and these are the items that you cannot bring. Offering smoking sensations classes, we have a look at well, maybe we'll come up and let them go in the gym so they can work out. So if you want to work out. Increase their skills, so they gave us a soft form of judo. A little verbal language. We added that with our SRT training and other skills.

Jackson: I love the project,

Michael: Correctional officer Patryce Jackson works at the jail.

Jackson: and they have changed the culture already. We now we don't have vending machines. So you have a variety of healthier food which some officers are aware or conscious of their health is some aren't but their options are healthy food. So I really like in that part portion. I really do.

Carson: You come to work ready to go to work. You sitting in shift briefing then you go to your job. 10 minutes later, somebody's hanging up and they die. How do you deal with that? In Corrections, we never dealt with that before. We just say “get back in there and do your job”. We’re human beings. Someone just died. And they died, there’s nothing that you could have done. So we so we got with mental health and EAP to make sure we have adequate counseling and coaching.

Jackson: Everyday is not the same in Corrections. So someday you may need that extra break and you may have some additional problems or situations going on.

Jeagers: How can we make the work meaningful to the worker to improve their day today. To reduce their stress. To make them want to come to work and do this work and be a part of someone's life. That's the culture change. That's the shift in the way we do the work and that's how we have to be really creative in using these strategies such as total worker Health to really infuse a workplace and change the way we do the work.

Michael: These changes all came from the employee's. The problems were identified and solutions were discovered and implemented by the employees at every level.

Jeagers: But I think the take away is we just have to listen to the worker and really they've got a lot of great answers.

Michael: Workplace matters is supported by the National Institute for occupational safety and health. To listen to more podcasts, view out ongoing video series, or for more information about us visit Healthier Workforce Center. Org.

Thank you.


Mod Factors

Description: This episode of Workplace Matters focuses on Mod Factors and what employers can do to improve them. These factors can lower insurance premiums and save money. More importantly, a good mod factor is often the direct result of a safe and healthy workforce.

Host: Michael Guhin

Guests: Lisa Henning, Dan Krick, and Amanda Adam

Mod Factors

Michael: You're listening to workplace matters presented by the healthcare Workforce Center of the Midwest. Today's episode will be focused on mod factors what they are, how to lower them, and why putting safety and health first will protect workers from harm and save money.

Lisa: Well a mod factor is the way the workers compensation insurance rates you on your risk-

Michael: Lisa Henning is the executive director of the Nebraska Safety Council.

Lisa(cont.): and so it's based on your industry. It's based on your size. It based on your location in the United States. And so obviously we can recognize that people that are in a manufacturing environment or construction environment have increase risk compared to say an office environment when it comes to injuries. A mod of 1 means that you're an average. So if you think of it from a grade perspective, it's a C. It's an average. If your mod factor is maybe a 0.7 then that's an A. If it's a 1.3 or 1.4. That would be a D or an F. So you really want that lower mod to decrease your cost in your risk at your organization.

Michael: Any company can find out what their mate factor is by contacting their workers compensation insurance provider. But once you know that number then steps need to be taken to either lower that factor or keep it low.

Lisa: I think you have written safety policies and procedures that they need to be very clear and they need to be communicated to your people, but for a small company one of the biggest things is having a small wellness program for your company. It doesn't have to be all-consuming. I have scene companies with as small as 4 employees do health and wellness program. When I look at the outcomes for businesses that do health and well-being programs, Total Worker Health type programs. They usually see outcomes in their change in absenteeism and their change in their mod first.

Michael: Their methods to lower mod like PPE or personal protective equipment and Engineering strategies. Both of those can physically mitigate risks in the workplace through healthy work design, improved ventilation, ergonomic workstations, and adjustments to work schedules.

Michael: Dan Creek is the vice president of organizational development at a manufacturing company called hexagon in Lincoln, Nebraska. Here's what they did to reduce their number of claims.

Dan: It was a lot of data collection. I needed to really understand what was going on. So we really broke it down and terms of where our injuries and illnesses were occurring by shift, by length of tenure, what type. And what we found was in our case 50% of our recordables for dermatitis related. So clearly a behavior thing that we can do. So not only PPE but just good hygiene. We enhanced our dermatitis training. So everybody gets out on a frequent basis at least once a year. Obviously new people that are coming in there getting a a really big dose to be able to create those behaviors upfront.

Michael: Amanda Adam is a health and safety manager at JWV Pork in Washington, Iowa. Her company was able to significantly lower their insurance mod factor and premiums after dedicating themselves to a safe work environment.

Amanda: This last year we had 12 injuries and the year before we had 13 injuries. The year that we had 13 injuries we had $95,000 in losses and the year that we had 12 injuries we had $7,000 in losses. So just because you- If you look solely at the number of losses that you have that's not really a good indicator of how your temperature on safety is. The overall goal wasn't to decrease the mod factor. The goal was to be able to manage those claims a little bit better. Ultimately. What we want is to send people home from work in the same way that they came to work. So that is at the heart of why we have a safety training program and those other things are great numbers that come along with that thing. But really if you don't have the heart and soul to care about how you send your employees home. Those numbers really don't make much of a difference.

Michael: Workplace matters is supported by the National Institute for occupational safety and health. To listen to more podcasts, view out ongoing video series, or for more information about us visit Healthier Workforce Center. Org.

Thank you.